In Darke County, Ohio sits the city of Greenville, a land of both peace and war. In the late 1793, General “Mad” Anthony Wayne oversaw the erection of Fort Greenville which was named for Wayne’s comrade in the American Revolution, Nathanael Greene. Wayne’s army was marching against the Indians of the Ohio Country. Fort Green Ville had walls that were ten feed high and expanded an area of about 50 acres. It is considered the largest wooden fortification ever built.
In August 1794, the Battle of Fallen Timbers raged on between the American Indian tribes who allied the Western Confederacy and the United States for control of the Northwest Territory. It was Wayne and the United States who captured the victory in this battle.
After the Battle of Fallen Timbers, Wayne utilized Fort Greenville as a negotiation post with the Indians. On August 3, 1795, the Treaty of Greenville was signed between the Indians, the Western Confederacy and the United States. There were 1,130 Indians present representing the participating tribes including a contingent of 381 Lenape men, women and children, the largest of any tribal delegations.
In exchange for provisions and goods, the Indians turned over to the United States large parts of modern-day Ohio. They agreed to release white captives and in return would be protected by the United States. The Indians were still permitted to hunt on the land which they ceded and would receive $9,500 every year in goods.
While the negotiation looked somewhat good on paper, many Indians refused to honor the agreement. White settlers continued to move onto the contested land and violence continued between the white man and the Indians until they were essentially outnumbered and dominated by the whites.
The city of Greenville was founded in August of 1808. Its population gradually grew to over 3,535 residents by 1880. Many of the residents were of German decent. By 2000, Greeville became the largest city in Darke County, Ohio.